Our Research

What FIRES together WIRES together

Current brain imaging research shows that the SAME neurons in the brain that fire when doing an action, also fire when experiencing comprehension.neurons-firing

For example, if you touch sandpaper, your brain develops a neurological pattern to remember the physical experience. If you understand the words, “touching sandpaper” while reading, it is because your brain fires almost the same neurological pattern that was created when you actually touched sandpaper.

In short, your brain uses physical experiences to build a platform for comprehending inferences, metaphors, and abstract high frequency words, such as “for”, “from”, “to”, “there”.

PictureFirst™ materials provide engaging activities that teach comprehension of the most critical High Frequency Sight Words.smart-cards-with-wikki-set-02-new

When children physically experience Sight Word meaning, they develop the deep neurological connections needed for building sight word reading fluency AND reading comprehension.

PictureFirst™  teaches students that every word in a sentence is deeply meaningful, bridging the gap between learning how to read and having the ability to learn from the written word.

Our materials are research-based AND classroom proven!

Results from a 2014 Classroom Study

RSLP Research-Based References :

Allington, R.L. (2001). Fluency: The neglected reading goal. The Reading Teacher, 36(6), 556-561.

Applegate, M.D., Applegate, & A.J., Modla,. V. B. (2009). She’s my best reader, she just can’t comprehend: Studying the relationship between fluency and comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 62(6), 512-521.

Ashton-Warner, S. (1963). Teacher. New York, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.

Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2010). Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Reading: Foundational Skills. Washington, DC: CCSSO & National Governors Association.

Devault, R. & Joseph, L.M. (2004). Repeated readings combined with word boxes phonics technique increases fluency levels of high school students with severe reading delays. Preventing School Failure, 49(1), 22-27.

Dolch, E.W. (1936). A Combined Word List. Boston, New York: Ginn and Company.

Ehri, L.C. (1995). Stages of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal of Research in Reading, 18, 116-125.

Ekwall, E. & Shanker, J.L. (2000). Ekwall/Shanker Reading Inventory, 4/E. Allyn & Bacon Publishing.

Guthrie, J.T., McRae, A., & Klauda, S.L. (2007). Contributions of concept-oriented reading instruction to knowledge about interventions for motivations in reading. Educational Psychologists, 42(4), 237-250.

Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B. & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714.

Jorm, A.F. (1977). Effect of word imagery on reading performance as a function of reader ability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 46-54.

Klammer , T., Shulz, M.R., & Volpe, A.D. (2009). Analyzing English Grammar (6th ed). Longman Publishing.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Gonzalez, E.J., & Kennedy, A.M. (2003). PIRLS 2001 international report: IEA’s study of reading literacy achievement in primary schools. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Ollila, L.O., & Chamberlain, L. (1979). The learning and retention of two classes of graphic words: High-frequency nouns and non-noun words among kindergarten children. Journal of Educational Research, 72, 288-293.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coping approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pfeiffer, S., Davis, R., Kellog, E., Hern, C., McLaughlin, T.F., Curry, G. (2001) The effects of the davis learning strategies on first grade word recognition and subsequent special education referrals. Reading Improvement Journal

Pikulski, J.J., Chard, D.J. (2005) Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 58(6), 510-519.

Pinnell, G.S., Pikulski, J.J., Wixson, K.K., Campbell, J.R. Gough, P.B., & Beatty, A.S. (1995). Listening to children read aloud. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education.

Pinker, Steven (1994). The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. Harper Collins Publishers.

Read Naturally (2001). Read Naturally Reading, Saint Paul, Minnesota, Turman Publishing.

Ryan, R.M., Weinstein, N. (2009) Undermining quality teaching and learning. Theory and Research in Education. 7(2), 224-233.

Schwanenflugel, P., & Noyes, C.R. (1996). Context availability and the development of word reading skill. Journal of Literacy Research, 28(1), 35-54.

Scott, J. & Nagy, W. (2009) Developing word consciousness. Reprinted in M.Graves (Ed.) Essential Reading on Vocabulary Instruction. (Pp. 106-117) Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Speer, N.K., Reynolds, J.R., Swallow, K.M., & Zacks, J.M. (2009). Reading stories activates neural representations of visual and motor experiences. Psychological Science. 20(8) 8, 989-999.

Stecker, S.K., Roser, N.L., & Martinez, M.G. (1998). Understanding oral reading fluency. In T. Shanahan & F.V. Rodriguez-Brown (Eds.), 47th yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 295-310). Chicago: National Reading Conference.

Thorndike, E.L. (1921). The Teacher’s Word Book. New York: Columbia University Press.

Twist, L., Gnaldi, M., Schagen, I., & Morrison, J. (2004). Good readers but at a cost? Attitudes to reading in England. Journal of Research in Reading, 27, 287-400.